Dr Ishwar Parhar


Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine & Health Sciences

Email: ishwar@monash.edu
Tel: +603 5514 6304
Office: Room 3-3-07A

Profile Summary

Professor Ishwar received his PhD in Neuroendocrinology from the National University of Singapore. He worked at The Rockefeller University, New York, USA and Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan for 30 years. He returned to Malaysia in 2006 as Professor in Neuroscience and the Founding Director of the Brain Research Institute at Monash University Malaysia (BRIMS). He holds Adjunct Professorships at several universities in Japan, Sun Yet Sen University in China and The Rockefeller University.

Professor Ishwar is an internationally recognized Neuroendocrinologist who has contributed greatly in the field of Reproductive Neuroscience.  He is author and co-author of books and has published more than 190 original articles in reputable international journals. He is also on the Editorial Board of several international journals, as well as scientific advisor to various government bodies. He is the Founder President of NeuroMalaysia Society

Current Appointment (2006-2023)

  • Director, Brain Research Institute(BRIMS),Monash University
  • Head of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Monash University
  • Professor of Neuroendocrinology


BSc (Hons) (Punjab), MSc (Hons) (Punjab), Ph.D(Sing)

Research Interests

  • Neuroscience
  • Neuroendocrinology
  • Reproductive Neuroscience
  • Social Neuroscience


Book Chapter


Takashi Kitahashi, Md Shahjahan, Ishwar S Parhar (2013). Hypothalamic Regulation of Pituitary Gonadotropins. Nova Science Publishers, Malasyan. ISBN: 978-1-62618-848-8. Editor: Balasubramanian Senthilkumaran © 2013 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Research Article


Kalpana Das, Satoshi Ogawa, Takashi Kitahashi, Ishwar S Parhar (2019). Expression of neuropeptide Y and gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene types in the brain of female Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) during mouthbrooding and food restriction. Peptides. DOI: 10.1016/j.peptides.2018.10.009


Kavinash Loganathan, Shogo Moriya, Ishwar S Parhar (2018). High Melatonin Conditions by Constant Darkness and High Temperature Differently Affect Melatonin Receptor mt1 and TREK Channel trek2a in the Brain of Zebrafish. Zebrafish. doi: 10.1089/zeb.2018.1594. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

Mei Yeng Yew, Rhun Yian Koh, Soi Moi Chye, Iekhsan Othman, Tomoko Soga, Ishwar Parhar, Khuen Yen Ng (2018). Edible bird’s nest improves motor behavior and protects dopaminergic neuron against oxidative and nitrosative stress in Parkinson’s disease mouse model. Journal of Functional Foods. DOI: 10.1016/j.jff.2018.07.058.

Manami Kamishima, Tatsuya Hattori, Go Suzuki, Hidenori Matsukami, Chiaki Komine, Yasuyuki Horii, Gen Watanabe, Takumi Oti, Hirotaka Sakamoto, Tomoko Soga, Ishwar S Parhar, Yasuhiko Kondo, Hidetaka Takigami, Maiko Kawaguchi (2018). Early‐life exposure to Tris (1, 3‐dichloroisopropyl) phosphate induces dose‐dependent suppression of sexual behavior in male rats. Frontiers doi: 10.1002/jat.3569.

Takayoshi Ubuka, Shogo Moriya, Tomoko Soga, Ishwar Parhar (2018). Identification of Transmembrane Protease serine 2 and Forkhead box a1 as the Potential bisphenol a responsive genes in the neonatal Male rat brain. Frontiers in endocrinology doi: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00139

Takayoshi Ubuka, Ishwar S Parhar, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui (2018). Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone mediates behavioral stress responses. General and comparative endocrinology doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2018.03.004

Kavinash Loganathan, Shogo Moriya, Ishwar S Parhar (2018). Trek2a regulates gnrh3 expression under control of melatonin receptor Mt1 and α2-adrenoceptor. Biochemical and biophysical research communications doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.01.117

Gaofei Li, Haipei Tang, Yu Chen, Yike Yin, Satoshi Ogawa, Meifeng Liu, Yin Guo, Xin Qi, Yun Liu, Ishwar S Parhar, Xiaochun Liu, Haoran Lin (2018). Estrogen directly stimulates LHb expression at the pituitary level during puberty in female zebrafish. Molecular and cellular endocrinology. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2017.08.003. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

Takayoshi Ubuka, Ishwar Parhar, Lance J Kriegsfeld, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui (2018). The roles of GniH in reproductive Function and Behavior. Frontiers in endocrinology doi: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00019

Takayoshi Ubuka, Ishwar Parhar (2018). Dual Actions of Mammalian and Piscine Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormones, RFamide-Related Peptides and LPXRFamide Peptides, in the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Gonadal Axis. Frontiers in endocrinology. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2017.00377.

Kai Lin Cham, Tomoko Soga, Ishwar Parhar (2018). Expression of RING Finger Protein 38 in Serotonergic Neurons in the Brain of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy. doi: 10.3389/fnana.2018.00109.

Yuki Higuchi, Tomoko Soga, Ishwar S Parhar (2018). Potential Roles of microRNAs in the Regulation of Monoamine Oxidase A in the Brain. Frontiers in molecular neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2018.00339.

Satoshi Ogawa, Xiaochun Liu, Brian S Shepherd, Ishwar S Parhar (2018). Ghrelin stimulates growth hormone release from the pituitary via hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone neurons in the cichlid, Oreochromis niloticus. Cell and Tissue Research. doi: 10.1007/s00441-018-2870-6.

Satoshi Ogawa, Ishwar Parhar (2018). Biological significance of kisspeptin-KissR1 signaling in the habenula of teleost species. Frontiers in Endocrinology doi: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00222

Chuin Hau Teo, Tomoko Soga, Ishwar S Parhar (2018). Brain Beta-Catenin Signalling During Stress and Depression. Neurosignals. https://doi.org/10.1159/000487764

Yuki Higuchi, Tomoko Soga, Ishwar S Parhar. (2018) Social Defeat Stress Decreases mRNA for Monoamine Oxidase A and Increases 5-HT Turnover in the Brain of Male Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Frontiers in Pharmacology. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01549


KavinashLoganathan ShogoMoriya MageswarySivalingam Kai WeNg Ishwar S.Parhar (2017) Sequence and localization of kcnk10a in the brain of adult zebrafish. Journal of chemical neuroanatomy doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2017

MS Sim, T Soga, V Pandy, YS Wu, IS Parhar (2017). MicroRNA expression signature of methamphetamine use and addiction in the rat nucleus accumbens. doi: 10.1007/s11011-017-0061-x

Y Higuchi, T Soga, IS Parhar (2017). Regulatory Pathways of Monoamine Oxidase A during Social Stress. Frontiers in neuroscience doi: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00604

Muñoz-Cueto JA, Paullada-Salmerón JA, Aliaga-Guerrero M, Cowan ME, Parhar IS and Ubuka T (2017). A journey through the gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone system of fish. Frontiers in endocrinology doi: 10.3389/fendo.2017.00285

CH Teo, T Soga, ISParhar (2017). Social isolation Modulates clOcK Protein and Beta-catenin expression Pattern in gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone neurons in Male rats. Frontiers in endocrinology doi: 10.3389/fendo.2017.00225

KL Cham, T Soga, IS Parhar (2017). RING Finger Protein 38 Is a Neuronal Protein in the Brain of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Frontiers in neuroanatomy doi: 10.3389/fnana.2017.00072

S Moriya, N Tahsin, IS Parhar (2017). Bpifcl modulates kiss2 expression under the influence of 11-ketotestosterone in female zebrafish. Scientific reports. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-08248-8

FT Lim, S Ogawa, AI Smith, IS Parhar (2017). Proteomics Identification of Potential Candidates Involved in Cell Proliferation for Early Stage of Brain Regeneration in the Adult Zebrafish. Zebrafish doi : 10.1089/zeb.2017.1319


Kanya Anukulthanakorn, Ishwar S Parhar, Sukanya Jaroenporn, Takashi Kitahashi, Gen Watanbe, Suchinda Malaivijitnond (2016) Neurotherapeutic Effects of Pueraria mirifica Extract in Early‐and Late‐Stage Cognitive Impaired Rats. Journal of Phytotherapy Research. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5595

Fei Tieng Lim, Satoshi Ogawa, Ishwar S Parhar (2016) Association between apoptotic neural tissue and cell proliferation in the adult teleost brain. Journal of Brain Research. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2016.08.033

Fei Tieng Lim, Satoshi Ogawa, Ishwar S Parhar (2016) Spred-2 expression is associated with neural repair of injured adult zebrafish brain. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy. doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2016.07.005

Shogo Moriya, Dipti Chourasia, Kai We Ng, Nazmina Bahadur Khel, Ishwar S Parhar (2016) Cloning and localization of immediate early response 2 (ier2) gene in the brain of medaka. Journal of chemical neuroanatomy. doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2016.04.005

Chong Yee Hang, Shogo Moriya, Satoshi Ogawa, Ishwar S Parhar (2016) Deep Brain Photoreceptor (val-opsin) Gene Knockout Using CRISPR/Cas Affects Chorion Formation and Embryonic Hatching in the Zebrafish. Journal of PLOS ONE. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165535

Satoshi Ogawa, Mageswary Sivalingam, Jakob Biran, Matan Golan, Rachel Shalini Anthonysamy, Berta Levavi‐Sivan, Ishwar S Parhar (2016) Distribution of LPXRFa, a gonadotropin‐inhibitory hormone ortholog peptide, and LPXRFa receptor in the brain and pituitary of the tilapia. Journal of Comparative Neurology. doi: 10.1002/cne.23990

Wei Ling Lim, Marshita Mohd Idris, Felix Suresh Kevin, Tomoko Soga, Ishwar S Parhar (2016) Maternal Dexamethasone exposure alters synaptic inputs to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the early Postnatal rat. Frontiers in Endocrinology. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2016.00117

Manish Putteeraj, Tomoko Soga, Takayoshi Ubuka, Ishwar S Parhar ( 2016) A “Timed” Kiss Is Essential for Reproduction: Lessons from Mammalian Studies. Frontiers in Endocrinology. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2016.00121

MA Camerino, M Liu, S Moriya, T Kitahashi, A Mahgoub, SJ Mountford, DK Chalmers, T Soga, IS Parhar, PE Thompson (2016) Beta amino acid‐modified and fluorescently labelled kisspeptin analogues with potent KISS1R activity. Peptide Science. doi: 10.1002/psc.2883

Kanya Anukulthanakorn, Ishwar S Parhar, Sukanya Jaroenporn, Takashi Kitahashi, Gen Watanbe, Suchinda Malaivijitnond (2016) Neurotherapeutic Effects of Pueraria mirifica Extract in Early‐and Late‐Stage Cognitive Impaired Rats. Journal of Phytotherapy Research. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5595

Shogo Moriya, Tomoko Soga, Dutt Way Wong, Ishwar S Parhar (2016) Transcriptome composition of the preoptic area in mid-age and escitalopram treatment in male mice. Neuroscience letters. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2016.04.052

Chong Yee Hang, Takashi Kitahashi, Ishwar S Parhar (2016) Neuronal Organization of Deep Brain Opsin Photoreceptors in Adult Teleosts . Frontiers in neuroanatomy. doi: 10.3389/fnana.2016.00048

Ishwar S Parhar, Satoshi Ogawa, Takayoshi Ubuka (2016) Reproductive neuroendocrine pathways of social behavior. Frontiers in endocrinology. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2016.00028

Ishwar S Parhar, Tomoko Soga, Sonoko Ogawa (2016) Editorial: Reproductive Neuroendocrinology and Social Behavior. Frontiers in neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2016.00124

Tipsuda Thongbuakaew, Jirawat Saetan, Saowaros Suwansa-ard, Wilairat Kankoun, Chanudporn Sumpownon, Ishwar Parhar, Prasert Meeratana, Prasert Sobhon, Prapee Sretarugsa ( 2016) The existence of kisspeptin-like peptides and effects on ovarian development and maturation in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Aquaculture. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2016.01.006

Tomoko Soga, Wei Ling Lim, Alan Soo-Beng Khoo, Ishwar S Parhar (2016) Kisspeptin activates Ankrd 26 gene expression in Migrating embryonic gnrh neurons. Frontiers in endocrinology. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5595

Yee Min Khor, Tomoko Soga, Ishwar S Parhar (2016) Early-life stress changes expression of GnRH and kisspeptin genes and DNA methylation of GnRH3 promoter in the adult zebrafish brain. General and comparative endocrinology. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2015.12.004


Tomoko Soga, Chuin Hau Teo, kai Lin Cham, Marshita Idris, Ishwar S Parhar (2015) Early-life Social Isolation Impairs the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neuronal Activity and Serotonergic System in Male Rats.Frontiers in Endocrinology, section Experimental Endocrinology doi: 10.3389/fendo.2015.00172 pg 172

Dutt Way Wong, Tomoko Soga, Ishwar S Parhar (2015) Aging and chronic administration of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor citalopram upregulate Sirt4 gene expression in the preoptic area of male mice.Frontiers in Genetics 6:281. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2015.00281, 6: 281

Fatima M Nathan, Satoshi Ogawa, Ishwar S Parhar (2015) Neuronal Connectivity between Habenular Glutamate-Kisspeptin1 Co-expressing Neurons and the Raphe 5-HT System.Journal of Neurochemistry (Impact Factor: 4.28). doi: 10.1111/jnc.13273 pg 814-829

Sumit Sethi, Dipti Chourasia, Ishwar S Parhar (2015) Approaches for targeted proteomics and its potential applications in neuroscience.Journal of Biosciences (Impact Factor:2.06) 40(3) 607-627

Parvathy Prasad, Satoshi Ogawa, Ishwar S Parhar (2015) Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Citalopram Inhibits GnRH synthesis and Spermatogenesis in the Male Zebrafish.Biology of Reproduction (Impact Factor: 3.32) 93(4):102. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.115.129965 93 (4), 102

Loong Hung Teng, Munirah Ahmad, Wayne Tiong Weng Ng, Subathra Sabaratnam, Maria Ithaya Rasan, Ishwar Parhar, Alan Soo Beng Khoo (2015) Gonadotropin releasing hormone inhibits the proliferation and motility of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells Molecular Medicine Reports (Impact Factor: 1.55) 12(4):4909-16. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2015.4043 pg 216-227

Parvathy Prasad, Satoshi Ogawa, Ishwar S. Parhar (2015) Role of serotonin in fish reproduction.Frontiers in Neuroscience (Impact Factor :3.66) 9:195. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2015.00195, 9(195)

Chong Yee Hang, Takashi Kitahashi, Ishwar S Parhar (2015) Brain area-specific diurnal and photic regulation of val-opsinA and val-opsinB genes in the zebrafish.Journal of Neurochemistry (Impact Factor: 4.28) 133(4): pp 501-510. DOI:10.1111/jnc.13084

Nilesh Kumar Mitra, C. Y. Tan , Umesh Bindal, Chua Lin Lin, Wong Eng Hwa, Ishwar Parhar, Tomoko Soga (2015) Investigating Cell Surface Markers and Differentiation Potential of Compact Bone-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells International.Journal of Stem Cell Research and Transplantation (IJST) 03(1), pp 91-95

Shogo Moriya, Nazmina Bahadur Khel, Ishwar S. Parhar (2015) Cloning and Serotonergic Regulation of RING Finger Protein38 (rnf38) in the Brain of Medaka (Oryzias latipes).Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 3.36) ; 294 pp 109-15. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.03.012

Fatima M. Nathan, Satoshi Ogawa, Ishwar S. Parhar (2015) Kisspeptin1 modulates odorant-evoked fear response via two serotonin receptor subtypes (5-HT1A and 5-HT2) in zebrafish.Journal of Neurochemistry (Impact Factor: 4.28) 133(6):pp 870-8. doi: 10.1111/jnc.13105

Seong Lin Teoh, Satoshi Ogawa, Ishwar S Parhar (2015) Localization of Genes Encoding Metallothionein-like Protein (mt2 and smtb) in the Brain of Zebrafish. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy doi:10.1016/j.jchemneu.2015.10.004

MS Sim, IS Parhar, T Soga, P Vijayapandi, Z Mohamed (2015). microRNA Expression Profiling of Methamphetamine Dependence in Rat Nucleus Accumbens Tissue. PUBLIC HEALTH GENOMICS. Public health genomics [Public Health Genomics] NLMUID , 2015, Vol.18, p.13


Jakob Biran, Matan Golan, Naama Mizrahi, Satoshi Ogawa, Berta Levavi-Sivan, Ishwar Parhar (2014). Direct Regulation of Gonadotropin Release by Neurokinin B in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).Endocrinology 155(12), 4831-4842

Hang Chong, Kitahashi Takashi, Parhar Ishwar (2014). Localization of characterization of val-opsin isoform expressing cells in the brain of adult zebrafish. J.Comp Neurology. 522(17) 3847-3860

Haipei Tang, Yun Liu, Daji Luo, Satoshi Ogawa, Yike Yin, Shuisheng Li, Yong Zhang, Wei Hu, Ishwar S Parhar, Haoran Lin, Xiaochun Liu, Christopher H K Cheng (2014) . The kiss/kissr systems are dispensable for zebrafish reproduction: evidence from gene knockout studies. Endocrinology.156(2) 589 Impact Factor 4.72

Jakob Biran, Matan Golan, Naama Mizrahi, Satoshi Ogawa, Ishwar Parhar, Berta Levavi-Sivan (2014). LPXRFa, the Piscine Ortholog of GnIH, and LPXRF-Receptor Positively Regulate Gonadotropin Secretion in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Endocrinology 155(11), 4391-4401

Satoshi Ogawa, Ishwar S Parhar (2014) Structural and functional divergence of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone from jawless fish to mammals. Frontiers in Endocrinology 5:177, doi: 10.3389/fendo.2014.00177

Ando H, Ogawa S, Shahjahan M, Ikegami T, Doi H, Hattori A, Parhar IS( 2014). Diurnal and circadian oscillations in expression of kisspeptin, kisspeptin receptor and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone 2 genes in the grass puffer,a semilunar-synchronised spawner. J Neuroendocrinol. 2014 May 13. doi: 10.1111/jne.12165 26(7), 459-467

Soga T, Kitahashi T, Iain J Clarke, Parhar IS (2014). Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Promoter-Driven Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein Expression Decreases During Aging in Female Rats.Endocrinology 155(5):1944-55

Md Shahjahan, Takashi Kitahashi, Ishwar S Parhar (2014). Central Pathways Integrating Metabolism and Reproduction in Teleosts.Frontiers in Endocrinology. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2014.00036

FM Nathan, Satoshi Ogawa, Parhar IS (2014). Habenular Kisspeptin Modulates Fear in the Zebrafish. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of American 11;111(10):3841-6, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1314184111

Ramyani Taran, Murali Krishna Mamidi, Gurbind Singh, Susmita Dutta, Ishwar S Parhar, John P. John, Ramesh Bhonde, Rajasrshi Pal, Anjan Das (2014). In-vitro and in-vivo neurogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from different sources. Journal of Biosciences 39(1):157-69

Lim. WL, Soga. T, Parhar IS (2014). Maternal Dexamethasone Exposure Inhibits the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuronal Movement in the Preoptic Area of Rat Offspring. Developmental Neuroscience. 36:95-107 Impact Factor 3.41

Lim WL.,Soga T, Parhar IS (2014). Maternal Dexamethasone Exposure during Pregnancy in Rats Disrupts Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuronal Development in the Offspring.Cell and Tissue Research 355(2):409-23.

Md. Shahjahan, Takashi Kitahashi, Satoshi Ogawa, Ishwar S. Parhar (2014). Corrigendum to “Temperature differentially regulates the two kisspeptin systems in the brain of zebrafish”. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 193 (2013) 79–85 Impact Factor 2.82


Satoshi Ogawa, Kai We Ng, Xiaoyu Xue, Priveena Nair Ramadasan, Mageswary Sivalingam, Berta Levavi-Sivan, Haoran Lin, Ishwar Parhar (2013). Thyroid hormone upregulates hypothalamic kiss2 gene in the male Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Frontiers in endocrinology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2013.00184.

Md Shahjahan,T.Kitahashi,S Ogawa, Parhar IS (2013). Temperature differentially regulates the two kisspeptin systems in the brain of zebrafish. Gen. Comp. End. 193:79-85

S.Jirawat, S.Thanyaporn, T. Montakan, W.Wattana, C. Jittipan, H. Peter, Parhar IS, S.Prasert,S. Prapee (2013). Histological organization of the CNS and distribution of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like peptide in the blue crab, Portunus pelagicus. Cell & Tissue Research 353 (3):495- 510

Q Wang, KWY Sham, S Ogawa, S Li, IS Parhar, CHK Cheng, X Liu, H Lin (2013). Regulation of the Two kiss Promoters in Goldfish (Carassius auratus) by Estrogen via Different ERα Pathways Molecular and Cellular. Endocrinology. 375(1-2):130-9

Shogo Moriya, Satoshi Ogawa, Ishwar S Parhar (2013). GnRH neuron type-specific transcriptome analysis by laser captured single-cell microarray in the medaka. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.05.004

Renjitha Gopurappilly, Satoshi Ogawa, Ishwar S Parhar (2013). Functional significance of GnRH and kisspeptin, and their cognate receptors in teleost reproduction. Frontiers in endocrinology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2013.00024

Ishwar S Parhar (2013). Seventh Congress of the Asia and Oceania Society for Comparative Endocrinology. General and comparative endocrinology. DOI: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2012.11.001

Takashi Kitahashi, Ishwar S Parhar (2013). Comparative aspects of kisspeptin gene regulation. General and comparative endocrinology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2012.10.003

Yasuyuki Horii, Sandun L Dalpatadu, Tomoko Soga, Ryo Ohta, Gen Watanabe, Kazuyoshi Taya, Ishwar S Parhar (2013).  Estrogenic regulation of Kiss1 mRNA variants in Hatano rats. General and comparative endocrinology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2012.10.004

Yee Min Khor, Tomoko Soga, Ishwar S Parhar (2013). Caffeine neuroprotects against dexamethasone-induced anxiety-like behaviour in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio). General and comparative endocrinology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2012.09.021

Kanya Anukulthanakorn, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Takashi Kitahashi, Sukanya Jaroenporn, Ishwar Parhar (2013). Molecular events during the induction of neurodegeneration and memory loss in estrogen-deficient rats. General and comparative endocrinology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2012.07.034

Satoshi Ogawa, Ishwar S Parhar (2013). Anatomy of the kisspeptin systems in teleosts. General and comparative endocrinology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2012.08.023

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Professor Ishwar's excellent scholarship and scientific achievements have been recognised through various the distinctions, fellowships, research grants and awards, such as those from the Ministry of Science Japan, Ministry of Science Malaysia, Ministry of Health Malaysia, the Pro-vice Chancellor Research Award from Monash University and the Narishige Neuroscience Award from Japan. Professor Ishwar has also recently received the ‘Top Scientist Award’ from the Academy of Science Malaysia and “Hind Rattan Award” from the government of India.