Associate Professor Md Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury

Contact Details

Tel: +603 5514 5623
Fax: +603 5514 6323
Office: Room 4-4-25

Profile Summary

Associate Professor Ezharul joined the Monash University Malaysia campus in February 2011 as a senior lecturer. Prior to this appointment, he was a senior lecturer at International Medical University (IMU) since September 2008 and a tenure-track assistant professor of Tokyo Institute of Technology since 2006. He has pioneered the development of carbonate apatite as a smart tool for efficient and targeted intracellular delivery of genetic materials, gene-silencing elements, proteins and classical anti-cancer drugs. He has created a new branch of nanomedicine delivery based on this pH-sensitive inorganic nano-carrier. His research team is one of the leading groups in the world working in the relevant area. His outstanding contributions have so far produced over 50 publications in the highly cited journals and 5 Japanese and US patents, some of which have already being commercialized. His research profile can be found in the following websites:


BSc(Biochemistry), MSc(Biochemistry), PhD(Biomolecular Engineering


International Journals (selected) 

1. Hossain, S., Yamamoto, H., Chowdhury, E. H., et al. Fabrication and intracellular delivery of doxorubicin/carbonate apatite nanocomposites: Effect on growth retardation of established colon tumor. PLOS ONE, 2013 (In Press) (Impact factor 4.092).

2. Hossain S, Sultana N, Chowdhury EH. PKC Activation Promotes Internalization of DNA-Immobilized Inorganic Nano-Crystals by Clathrin-Dependent Endocytosis for Efficient Transgene Expression in Human Lymphocytes. Journal of Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology, 2012 (In press). (Impact factor 5.72).

3. Chua MJ, Snigdha Tiash, Fatemian T, Noordin MI, Keng CS & Chowdhury EH. Carbonate apatite-facilitated intracellular delivery of c-ROS1 siRNA sensitizes MCF-7 breast cancer cells to cisplatin and paclitaxel. OA Cancer, 2013 (Impact factor has yest to released).

4. Stanislaus A, Tiash S, Fatemian T, Hossain S, Akaike T, Chowdhury EH. Knockdown of PLC-gamma-2 and calmodulin 1 genes sensitizes human cervical cancer cells to doxorubicin and paclitaxel. Cancel Cell International, 2012 (In press) (Impact factor 2).

5. Li, Y.T., Chua, M.J., Kunnath, A.P., Chowdhury, E.H. Reversing multidrug resistance in breast cancer cells by silencing ABC transporter genes with nanoparticle-facilitated delivery of target siRNAs. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 2012, (In press) (Impact factor 4.976).

6. Fukuda, K., Kutsuzawa, K., Maruyama, K., Akiyama, Y., Chowdhury, E.H.. Synergistic effect of PKC activation and actin filament disruption on carbonate apatite-facilitated lymphocyte transfection. Biochem Biophys Res Commun (BBRC), 2012, 419(3):482-4. (Impact factor 2.7).

7. Chowdhury EH. Fluoride enhances transfection activity of carbonate apatite by increasing cytoplasmic stability of plasmid DNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun (BBRC), 2011, 409(4):745-7. (Impact factor 2.7).

8. Hossain, S, Stanislaus, A, Chua, M.J.  Tada, S, Chowdhury E. H.,& Akaike T. Carbonate apatite-facilitated intracellularly delivered siRNA for efficient knockdown of functional genes. Journal of Controlled Release, 2010, 147(1):101-8. (Impact factor 7.164).

9. Tee LK, Ling CS, Chua MJ, Abdullah S, Rosli R, Chowdhury EH. Purification of transcriptionally active multimeric plasmid DNA using zwitterionic detergent and carbonate apatite nano-particles. Plasmid, 2011 (In press) (Impact factor 1.8).

10. Hossain, S., Tada, S., Akaike, T. & Chowdhury, E. H. Influences of electrolytes and glucose on formulation of carbonate apatite nano-crystals for efficient gene delivery to mammalian cells, Analytical Biochemistry, 2010, 15;397(2):156-61. (Impact factor 3.287).

11. Tada, S., Chowdhury, E. H., Cho, C.S. & Akaike, T. pH-sensitive carbonate apatite as an intracellular protein transporter, Biomaterials, 2010, 31(6):1453-9. (Impact factor 7.882).

12. Kutsuzawa, K., Tada, S., Hossain, S.,  Fukuda, K., Akaike, T., Maruyama, K., Akiyama , Y. & Chowdhury, E. H. Disrupting actin filaments promotes efficient transfection of a leukaemia cell line using cell adhesive protein-embedded carbonate apatite particles, Analytical Biochemistry, 2009,388(1):164-6. (Impact factor 3.287).

13. Zohra, F. T., Chowdhury, E. H. & Akaike, T. High performance mRNA transfection through carbonate apatite-cationic liposome conjugates, Biomaterials, 2009, 30(23-24):4006-13 (Impact factor 7.882).

14. Kutsuzawa, K., Akaike, T. & Chowdhury, E. H. The influence of the cell adhesive proteins E-cadherin and fibronectin embedded in carbonate-apatite DNA carrier on transgene delivery and expression in a mouse embryonic stem cell line, Biomaterials, 2008;29(3):370-6 (Impact factor 7.882).

15. Kutsuzawa, K., Maruyama, K., Akiyama, T., Akaike, T. & Chowdhury, E. H. Efficient transfection of mouse embryonic stem cells with cell-adhesive protein-embedded inorganic nano-carrier, Analytical Biochemistry, 2008;372(1):122-4 (Impact factor 3.287).

16. Kutsuzawa, K., Maruyama, K., Akiyama, T., Akaike, T. & Chowdhury, E. H. Protein kinase C activation enhances transfection efficacy of cell-adhesive protein-anchored carbonate apatite nano-crystals, Analytical Biochemistry, 2007, 371(1), 116-7 (Impact factor 3.287).

17. Zohra, F. T., Chowdhury, E. H., Tada, S., Hoshiba, T. & Akaike, T. Effective delivery with enhanced translational activity synergistically accelerates mRNA-based transfection, Biochem Biophys Res Commun (BBRC), 2007, 358(1), 373-8 (Impact factor 2.548). 

18. Chowdhury, E. H., Maruyama, A., Nagaoka, M., Hirose, S., Megumi, K. and Akaike, T. pH-sensing nano-crystals of carbonate apatite: Effects on intracellular delivery and release of DNA for efficient expression into mammalian cells. Gene, 2006, 376, 87-94 (Impact factor 2.416).

19. Kutsuzawa, K, Chowdhury, E. H. et al. Surface functionalization of inorganic nano-crystals with fibronectin and E-cadherin chimera synergistically accelerate trans-gene delivery into embryonic stem cells, Biochem Biophys Res Commun (BBRC), 2006, 350, 514-20 (Impact factor 2.548).

20. Chowdhury, E. H. and T. Akaike. High performance DNA nano-carriers of carbonate apatite: Multiple factors in regulation of particle synthesis and transfection efficiency. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 2007, 2(1):101-6 (Impact factor 4.976).

21. Chowdhury, E. H. and T. Akaike. Fibronectin-coated nano-precipitates of calcium-magnesium phosphate for integrin-targeted gene delivery. Journal of Controlled Release, 2006,116(2):e68-9 (Impact factor 7.164).

22. Chowdhury, E. H. and T. Akaike. Apatite with less crystallinity is a superior agent for macromolecular drug delivery to mammalian cells. Journal of Controlled Release, 2006, 116(2):e42-3 (Impact factor 7.164).

23. Chowdhury, E. H., Nagaoka, M., Ogiwara, K., Zohra, F. T., Kutsuzawa, K., Tada, S., Kitamura, C and Akaike, T. Integrin-supported fast rate intracellular delivery of plasmid DNA by ECM protein embedded-calcium phosphate complexes. Biochemistry (USA), 2005, 44, 12273-8 (Impact factor 3.226). 

24. Chowdhury, E. H. & Akaike, T. Rapid isolation of high quality, multimeric plasmid DNA using zwitterionic detergent. Journal of Biotechnology, 2005, 119, 343-347 (Impact factor 2.881).

25. Zohra, F. T., Chowdhury, E. H., Nagaoka, M. & Akaike, T. Drastic effect of nano-apatite particles on liposome-mediated mRNA delivery to mammalian cells. Analytical Biochemistry, 2005, 345, 164-166 (Impact factor 3.287).

26. Chowdhury, E. H. & Akaike, T. A Bio-recognition device developed onto nano-crystals of carbonate apatite for cell-targeted gene delivery. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 2005, 90, 414-421(Impact factor 3.00).

27. Chowdhury, E. H., Zohra, F. T., Tada, S., Kitamura, C. and Akaike, T. Fibronectin in collaboration with Mg (2+) enhances transgene expression by calcium phosphate coprecipitates. Analytical Biochemistry, 2004, Dec 1, 335(1):162-4 (Impact factor 3.287).

28. Chowdhury, E. H., Kunou, M., Nagaoka, M., Kundu, A. K., Hoshiba, T. and Akaike, T. High-efficiency gene delivery for expression in mammalian cells by nanoprecipitates of Ca-Mg phosphate. Gene, 2004, Oct 27, 341:77-82 (Impact factor 2.416).

29. Chowdhury, E. H., Megumi, K., Harada, I., Kundu, A. K. and Akaike, T. Dramatic effect of Mg(2+) on tranfecting mammalian cells by DNA/calcium phosphate precipitates. Analytical Biochemistry, 2004, May 1, 328 (1):96-7 (Impact factor 3.287).

30. Kundu, A. K., Nagaoka, M., Chowdhury, E. H., Hirose, S., Sasagawa, T. and Akaike, T. IGF-1 induces growth, survival and morphological change of primary hepatocytes on a galactose-bared polymer through both MAPK and beta-catenin pathways. Cell Structure and Function 2003, Aug, 28 (4):255-63 (Impact factor ~ 3.00)..

31. Chowdhury, E. H., Sasagawa, T., Nagaoka, M., Kundu, A. K. and Akaike, T. Transfecting mammalian cells by DNA/calcium phosphate precipitates: effect of temperature and pH on precipitation. Analytical Biochemistry, 2003, March, 15,314(2):316-8 (Impact factor 3.287).

32. Park, I. K., Kim, T. H., Park, Y. H., Shin, B. A., Choi, E. S., Chowdhury, E. H., Akaike, T. and Cho, C. S. Galactosylated chitosan-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) as hepatocyte-targeting DNA carrier. Journal of Controlled Release, 2001, Oct, 19, 76(3):349-62 (Impact factor 7.164).

Review Papers (selected)

1. Fatemian, T, Othman, I & Chowdhury, E. H. Strategies and validation for siRNA-based therapeutics for reversal of multi-drug resistance in cancer, Drug Discovery Today, 2013 (In press). (Impact factor 6.551). 

2. Ahmed, A., Othman, I, Zaini, A & Chowdhury, E. H. Oral nano-insulin therapy: Current progress on nanoparticle-based devices for intestinal epithelium-targeted insulin delivery, Journal of Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology, 2012 (Impact factor 5.72). 

Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, 2011, 8(3):389-401 (Impact factor 4.482).

4. Hossain S, Akaike T, Chowdhury EH. Current approaches for drug delivery to central nervous system. Curr Drug Deliv., 2010, 7(5):389-97 (Impact factor 1.73).

5. Chowdhury, E.H. Nuclear targeting of viral and non-viral DNA, Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, 2009, 6(7):697-703 (Impact factor 4.482).

6. Chowdhury, E. H. Self-assembly of DNA and cell-adhesive proteins onto pH-sensitive inorganic crystals for precise and efficient transgene delivery. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 2008; 14(22):2212-28 (Impact factor 4.774).

7. Chowdhury, E. H. & Akaike, T. pH-sensitive inorganic nano-particles and their precise cell targetibility: An efficient gene delivery and expression system, Current Chemical Biology, 2007, 1, 201-213 (Impact factor yet to be released).

8. Chowdhury, E. H., Kutsuzawa, K. & Akaike, T. Designing Smart Nano-apatite Composites: The Emerging era of non-viral gene delivery (invited review), Gene Therapy & Molecular Biology, 2005, 9, 301-16 (Impact factor yet to be released).

9. Chowdhury, E. H. & Akaike, T. Bio-functional inorganic materials: An attractive branch of gene-based nano-medicine delivery for 21st century, Current Gene Therapy, 2005, 5(6), 669-76 (Impact factor 4.902).

10. Chowdhury, E. H. & Akaike, T. Integrin-targeted gene delivery: A common approach for advanced viral and non-viral vectors, Gene Therapy & Molecular Biology, 2005, 9, 431-44 (Impact factor yet to be released).

11. Chowdhury, E. H. & Akaike, T. Advances in Fabrication of Calcium Phosphate Nano-composites for Smart Delivery of DNA and RNA to Mammalian Cells, Current Analytical Chemistry, 2005, 2, 187-192 (Impact factor 2.143).


1. Chowdhury E. H. pH-Sensitive Nano-Crystals of Carbonate Apatite for Smart and Cell-Specific Transgene Delivery, Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, 2007, 4(3), 193-196 (Impact factor 4.482).

2. Hossain S, Chowdhury EH & Akaike T.  Nanoparticles and toxicity in therapeutic delivery: the ongoing debate. Therapeutic Delivery, 2011, 2(2):125-32 (Impact factor has yet to be released).

Book Chapters

1. Chowdhury, E. H. pH-sensitive nanocrystals of carbonate apatite- a powerful and versatile tool for efficient delivery of genetic materials to mammalian cells, “Advances in Biomaterials Science and Applications in Biomedicine”. Eds., Pignatello R, InTech, Croatia, 2013 (In progress).

2. Hossain, S, Chowdhury, E. H. and Akaike, T. Inorganic nanomaterials of carbonate apatite as intracellular nucleic acid/drug transporters,” Bioengineered Nanomaterials’, Eds., Atul Tiwari; Ashutosh Tiwari, Linköping University, Sweden, 2013 (In press).

3. Chowdhury, E. H. & Akaike, T. Case Studies: Development of Oligonucleotides, “Handbook of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology”, Eds., Gad, S. C., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2007, 1219-1242. 

4. Chowdhury, E. H. & Akaike, T. Nanoparticles: Determining Toxicity, “Nanotechnology for the Regeneration of Soft and Hard Tissues” Eds., Webster, T. J., World Scientific, USA, 2007, 201-217.

No. of Patents: 6

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