Dr Lim Lam Ghai

School of Engineering

+603 5514 5628
Room 5-4-48

Personal statement

Lim Lam Ghai is a lecturer in Robotics and Mechatronics Engineering Discipline at Monash University Malaysia. He completed his doctoral degree in Electrical and Electronic Engineering at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Malaysia in 2021. He has employed his multi-disciplinary research interest within signal processing in energy sectors and neuroimaging modalities to solve real-life problems.

He was an Electrical and Electronic Engineering graduate from UTP in 2014.  He then pursued Master of Science at UTP to develop a capacitive sensor that measures liquid holdup in two-phase flow for energy sectors. A patent has been filed for the innovation and his work has won the best master thesis award conferred by IEEE Circuits and Systems Society.

Subsequently, he diversified the acquired knowledge during his doctoral study in biomedical and brain signal-related research to identify and improve human’s mental state. An integrated brain training session is ongoing at day-care centre to reduce brain degeneration rate on dementia patients. The work has also formed international research collaboration with Research and Development Group, Hitachi Ltd., Japan, to integrate the methodology into brain-computer interface applications. In addition, his works have been published in reputable peer-reviewed journals with international collaborations and won accolades in exhibitions.

Academic degrees

  • Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 2021
  • Master of Science (Electrical & Electronic Engineering), Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 2017
  • Degree in Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 2014

Professional affiliations

Member of National Professional Bodies

  • Board of Engineers Malaysia, Graduate Engineer

Member of International Professional Bodies

  • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,  Member

Research Interests

Lim Lam Ghai’s research specialties include near-infrared spectroscopy, neural signal processing, brain-computer interface, artificial intelligence, and health analytics. He has developed a baseline detection method using vector phase analysis to improve mental workload estimation, where it can be further employed in the brain-computer interface as an intervention to estimate the brain readiness for the mental exercises. Such a method offers a practical approach to improve brain signal recordings and reduce bias in data analysis. Ultimately, he aims to develop a reliable and robust brain-computer interface, be it clinical or non-clinical use.

Research projects

Title:  Real-time optimization of the hemodynamic-based block design by detecting baseline state using vector phase analysis approach

A baseline detection method has been developed using vector phase analysis for the brain signals recorded by functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Its effectiveness has been validated on several datasets, where mental workload estimation has shown significant improvements provided that an optimal baseline is detected prior to the brain stimulation. The existing method will be further extended to optimize the rest duration of the hemodynamic-based block design in real-time applications. This work is expected to reduce inter- and intra-subject variability in data analysis.

Title:  Development of cognitive training system as diagnostic and prevention tools for Alzheimer’s disease

The work focuses on developing a cognitive training system with functional near-infrared spectroscopy as a tool to improve and enhance working memory performance. Multiple difficulty levels of arithmetic tasks are integrated in the system, where the recorded brain signals are used as feedback to adjust the difficulty level. The findings from the pilot study on healthy university students have demonstrated that the brain performance can be optimized and operated at full capacity using the developed cognitive training system. A clinical test is ongoing to evaluate its efficacy on elderly and dementia patients. It is expected to enhance working memory performance, which could ultimately reduce the brain degeneration rate and prevent Alzheimer’s disease.

Title:  Assessing the impacts of low and high expressed emotion on frontal and temporal lobes of schizophrenia patients using functional near-infrared spectroscopy

Expressed emotion refers to the measure of the family members talking and communicating with the psychiatric patients. The important aspects are critical comments, hostility, and emotional over-involvement. In this work, the brain activities of frontal and temporal lobes are recorded using functional near-infrared spectroscopy when the schizophrenia patients listen to the audio containing low and high expressed emotion in two separate sessions. Through this work, we can have a better understanding of how the brain of schizophrenia patients reacts to different kinds of expressed emotion. Using such findings, an enhanced neurotherapy can be designed and developed to help the patients regulate their emotions.


Tan, Wen Shan; Shaaban, Mohamed; , 2020, Dual-timescale generation scheduling with nondeterministic flexiramp including demand response and energy storage, Electric Power Systems Research, Volume: 189, Issue Number: 03787796, 10.1016/j.epsr.2020.106821

Bukar, Abba Lawan; Tan, Chee Wei; Yiew, Lau Kwan; Ayop, Razman; Tan, Wen Shan; , 2020, A rule-based energy management scheme for long-term optimal capacity planning of grid-independent microgrid optimized by multi-objective grasshopper optimization algorithm, Energy Conversion and Management, Volume: 221, Issue Number: 01968904, 10.1016/j.enconman.2020.113161

Wu, Yuan Kang; Tang, Kuo Ting; Lin, Zheng Kuan; Tan, Wen Shan; , 2020, Flexible power system defense strategies in an isolated microgrid system with high renewable power generation, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), Volume: 10, 10.3390/app10093184

Wu, Yuan Kang; Tan, Wen Shan; Huang, Si Ru; Chiang, Yu Shuang; Chiu, Chui Pin; Su, Chun Lien; , 2020, Impact of Generation Flexibility on the Operating Costs of the Taiwan Power System under a High Penetration of Renewable Power, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, (2348-2359), Volume: 56, Issue Number: 00939994, 10.1109/TIA.2020.2974435

Tan, Wen Shan; Shaaban, Mohamed; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; , 2019, Stochastic generation scheduling with variable renewable generation: Methods, applications, and future trends, IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution, (1467-1480), Volume: 13, Issue Number: 17518687, 10.1049/iet-gtd.2018.6331

Shutari, Hussein; Wooi, Chin Leong; Hamid, Haziah Abdul; Mousa, Mohammed Imran; Tan, Wen Shan; Nabipour-Afrouzi, Hadi; , 2019, Modelling and simulation of definite time over current relay for radial systems protection, Journal of Advanced Research in Dynamical and Control Systems, (785-794), Volume: 11, 10.5373/JARDCS/V11SP12/20193277

Shaaban, Mohamed; Tan, Wen Shan; Abdullah, Md Pauzi; , 2018, A multi-timescale hybrid stochastic/deterministic generation scheduling framework with flexiramp and cycliramp costs, International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, (585-593), Volume: 99, Issue Number: 01420615, 10.1016/j.ijepes.2018.02.004

Tan, Wen Shan; Shaaban, Mohamed; Abdullah, Md Pauzi; , 2017, Chance-constrained programming for day-ahead scheduling of variable wind power amongst conventional generation mix and energy storage, IET Renewable Power Generation, (1785-1793), Volume: 11, Issue Number: 17521416, 10.1049/iet-rpg.2016.0875

Wu, Yuan Kang; Su, Po En; Su, Yu Sheng; Wu, Ting Yi; Tan, Wen Shan; , 2017, Economics- and Reliability-Based Design for an Offshore Wind Farm, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, (5139-5149), Volume: 53, Issue Number: 00939994, 10.1109/TIA.2017.2737399

Tan, Wen Shan; Abdullah, Md Pauzi; Shaaban, Mohamed; , 2017, Chance-constrained scheduling of variable generation and energy storage in a multi-timescale framework, Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, (1709-1718), Volume: 12, Issue Number: 19750102, 10.5370/JEET.2017.12.5.1709

Tan, Wen Shan; Shaaban, Mohamed; , 2016, A Hybrid Stochastic/Deterministic Unit Commitment Based on Projected Disjunctive MILP Reformulation, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, (5200-5201), Volume: 31, Issue Number: 08858950, 10.1109/TPWRS.2016.2521326

Tan, Wen Shan; Hassan, Mohammad Yusri; Majid, Md Shah; Abdul Rahman, Hasimah; , 2013, Optimal distributed renewable generation planning: A review of different approaches, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, (626-645), Volume: 18, Issue Number: 13640321, 10.1016/j.rser.2012.10.039


Yap, Yu Hang; Jinnie, ; Tan, Wen Shan; Ahmad, Noor Azlinda; Wooi, Chin Leong; Wu, Yuan Kang; , 2020, Motivational Game-Theory P2P Energy Trading: A Case Study in Malaysia, 2020 2nd International Conference on Smart Power and Internet Energy Systems, SPIES 2020, (480-485), 10.1109/SPIES48661.2020.9243056,

Wu, Yuan Kang; Huang, Si Ru; Tan, Wen Shan; Chiu, Chui Pin; , 2019, Impact of Generation Flexibility on the Operating Cost under a High Penetration of Renewable Power Integration, 2019 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, IAS 2019, 10.1109/IAS.2019.8912365,

Shaaban, Mohamed; Tan, Wen Shan; Abdullah, Md Pauzi; , 2017, Day-ahead scheduling of wind generation and energy storage, IEEE Region 10 Annual International Conference, Proceedings/TENCON, (2319-2324), Volume: 2017-December, Issue Number: 21593442, 10.1109/TENCON.2017.8228248,

Tan, Wen Shan; Abdullah, Md Pauzi; Shaaban, Mohamed; , 2017, A day-ahead generation scheduling with demand response considering thermal cycling ramp, 2017 IEEE Conference on Energy Conversion, CENCON 2017, (212-217), Volume: 2018-January, 10.1109/CENCON.2017.8262486,

Tan, Wen Shan; Abdullah, Md Pauzi; Shaaban, Mohamed; , 2017, A day-ahead generation scheduling with energy storage considering cycling ramp costs, PECON 2016 - 2016 IEEE 6th International Conference on Power and Energy, Conference Proceeding, (95-100), 10.1109/PECON.2016.7951540,

Tan, Wen Shan; Shaaban, Mohamed; , 2015, Hybrid stochastic/deterministic unit commitment with wind power generation, 2015 IEEE Eindhoven PowerTech, PowerTech 2015, 10.1109/PTC.2015.7232351,

Tan, Wen Shan; Shaaban, Mohamed; , 2015, Ranking of power system contingencies based on a risk quantification criterion, 2015 IEEE Student Conference on Research and Development, SCOReD 2015, (356-361), 10.1109/SCORED.2015.7449355,

Tan, W. S.; Hassan, M. Y.; Majid, M. S.; Rahman, H. A.; , 2012, Allocation and sizing of DG using Cuckoo Search algorithm, PECon 2012 - 2012 IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy, (133-138), 10.1109/PECon.2012.6450192,

Tan, W. S.; Hassan, M. Y.; Majid, M. S.; , 2012, Multi population genetic algorithm for allocation and sizing of distributed generation, 2012 IEEE International Power Engineering and Optimization Conference, PEOCO 2012 - Conference Proceedings, (108-113), 10.1109/PEOCO.2012.6230844,

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  • Young Researcher Award 2021 (Finalist),  IChemE Malaysia
  • Eco Champion Award 2021,  WWF-Malaysia:  Recycle3Go Project
  • Outstanding Master Dissertation Award 2017,  IEEE Circuits and Systems Malaysia Chapter


  • One Eighty Seconds of Your Research Study (180SRS) 2021 (1st runner up),  Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
  • Virtual Innovation Competition 2021 (Bronze),  Universiti Teknologi MARA:  Optimizing the extraction of brain signals for better estimation of mental workload
  • International Multidisciplinary Innovation Competition 2021 (Silver),  Academic International Dialogue Conference Malaysia:  Coupling of computation simulation and hands-on experience in process control laboratory inline with IR 4.0 oriented education
  • 28th International Invention, Innovation and Technology Exhibition 2017 (Silver),  Ministry of Science, Technology & Innovation:  Capacitance sensor for use in measuring liquid holdup